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Personal loans are a popular way to get money to consolidate credit card debt, start a side business, or finance home improvements. In fact, you can use a personal loan to do just about anything. Personal loans are relatively easy to apply for compared to mortgages or auto loans, and approval is based on your credit history and income. Here is everything you need to know about personal loans.
A personal loan is a lump sum lent to you by a credit union, bank, or online lender. Then, it works by you paying back the loan -- plus interest fees -- in monthly installments over a predetermined period of time. Unlike other loans for a specific type of purchase, such as a home or car loan, personal loans can be used for almost any purpose.
For example, you can use a personal loan to:
You can get a personal loan through many financial institutions, including online-based and traditional (branch-based) lenders. If you want to see some of our favorites, check out our updated list of the best personal loans.
While all personal loans are in the same general category, there are some sub-categories you should know:
A personal loan can impact your credit score in multiple ways. When you apply for the loan, the application will put a hard inquiry on your credit file. This lowers your credit score, but only by a small amount. For most consumers, the impact is less than five points.
The good news is that a personal loan can have a much greater positive impact on your credit score. If you make the loan payments on time, this will improve your payment history -- the most important factor in your credit score.
If the personal loan is used to consolidate credit card debt, it will help your credit score even more. For one thing, installment debt (loan debt) is generally considered more favorable than revolving debt (credit cards). Plus, your credit card utilization percentages will be much lower after the consolidation (you won't be very close to maxing out your credit cards). That can also provide a big boost to your score.
Before you shop around for a personal loan, there are a few things you should be familiar with in order to make the best decision for your financial situation.
Read through each lender's minimum credit score requirements to make sure you qualify before applying. Some lenders also have income requirements.
If your credit score or income is low, look into secured vs. unsecured loans. Most personal loans don't require collateral -- these are known as "unsecured" loans. This means the lender can't take your car or home if you can't pay the loan. But if your credit is poor, you might not qualify for an unsecured loan. In that case, you may have to offer collateral (such as money in a savings account or CD) to qualify for a loan.
How much you want to borrow and how long you want to take to pay it off -- the personal loan structure -- are two of the most important details you'll need to know before selecting a loan. Here are some things to keep in mind:
You can see how these three details impact your monthly payments using the loan calculator below.
Some loans charge fees beyond just the interest rate. Here are a couple you may see:
The interest rate you'll pay on your personal loan can vary based on a couple of factors, including your credit score and lender. Here's how to make sure you're getting the best rates.
Generally, you'll get a low interest rate if you have an excellent credit score.
If your credit score needs improvement, don't stress -- you can still get a personal loan for fair credit. These loans generally charge a higher interest rate, but the interest rate will still (usually) be lower than the interest rate on a credit card. There are also several ways to build credit fast, if you'd like to try increasing your score and improving your chances of landing a low interest rate.
It's not uncommon for a borrower to find loan offers with a difference of 8 percentage points or more on the interest rate, even when applying to the best personal lenders. This means that if you apply to a bunch of lenders, offers with APRs ranging from 8% to 16% wouldn't be unusual. What if you only apply to the 16% APR lender? You'll never know what interest rates are out there unless you apply to multiple lenders.
Most personal lenders allow you to get pre-approved, which includes checking your interest rates, in just a couple of minutes. An hour or so of shopping around for loans is easy and could save you hundreds (or even thousands) of dollars.
It can be tempting to select the longest loan repayment term possible to keep your monthly payments low. However, it's wise to consider repaying your loan in the shortest time period you can reasonably afford.
Let's say that you borrow $20,000 to fund home renovations at an 8% interest rate. Repaying the loan over a 48-month term would result in a $488.26 monthly payment, while a 72-month term would come with a $350.66 payment -- keeping an extra $137.60 in your wallet each month.
However, the longer term would result in you paying $5,248 in total interest, while the 48-month loan would have total interest charges of $3,436. By choosing to pay a little more each month, you'll save $1,812 in the long run.
Deciding if a personal loan is right for you
Qualifying for a personal loan
Finding the right personal loan
Applying for a personal loan
Paying off a personal loan
Reasons you can get a loan
Looking for a personal loan but don’t know where to start? Our favorites offer quick approval and rock-bottom interest rates. Check out our list to find the best loan for you.
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